How to Cook Scallops: A Beginners' Guide
I wrote a post called, All About Scallops, where I explained the different types of scallops, how they are harvested, how to buy them, and how to store them but not cook them. Miss Emerson called me out on this in her comment when she said,
You also present the material in a simple, concise, easy-to-read way. The only information I missed is that I would have liked more written about techniques like how do you get a proper sear, should you season scallops before or after cooking, and how you can tell it is done.
So in response to Miss Emerson, the question is:
How do you cook scallops?
Hear the rim shot? It sounds like a glib answer to a reasonable question. But it is the truth.
The part of the scallop we eat is the strong, lean muscle that opens and closes the scallop's shell to propel itself through the water. And lean muscle requires quick cooking.
An overcooked scallop has a very chewy texture. That's because the proteins have cooked to the point that they squeeze out all the moisture. And there is no extra fat present in a scallop to help to mask the fact that they are overcooked.
So, what's a beginning cook to do when even experienced cooks can end up with over-cooked scallops? Again, the answer is speed.
Also, to play up scallops' delicate sweetness, it's best to use dry-heat cooking methods so that the sugars and proteins on the surface can brown through caramelization and the Maillard reactions.
How Do You Know When They Are Done?
Okay, but scallops are small. So how do you know they're done? After all, overcooked is terrible. Fortunately, the scallops can show us when they're done.
As the proteins cook, they turn from translucent to opaque. This is dramatically evident when cooking an egg--the whites turn from clear to white as the egg cooks. The same applies to all proteins, although the darker pigments in other proteins can make the change look less dramatic.
When you cook scallops, please don't walk away from them. If you are going to sear them, leave them alone. Otherwise, as for a stir fry or grilling, keep them moving. Watch for the change from translucent to opaque.
To begin with, you might have to cut one open to check for doneness, but once you know how long it takes and what they look like when they are done, you won't have to do that anymore.
Because of carryover cooking, taking them off the heat and out of the pan is best when they are not entirely done. In the case of scallops, slightly underdone is preferable to overdone.
How to Get Them Ready To Cook
To prepare the scallops for cooking, pat them dry and cut off the small side muscle if present. This muscle will get chewy no matter what, so it's best to get rid of it.
You can cook the small (½ inch) bay scallops or the larger (1 inch1 and ½ inch) sea scallops by any of the following methods, except where noted. If possible, purchase dry scallops for the best results.
Especially when grilling bay scallops, thread them on soaked wooden skewers to keep them from falling through the grill grate, but the skewer method works just as well with sea scallops.
Dry the scallops well with paper towels. Then, season simply with a bit of salt and pepper.
Grill over hot coals, turning them every minute for even cooking until opaque. For bay scallops, this will take about two to three minutes. For sea scallops, about five.
Skewering bay scallops is a good idea in this application because you will have to turn them all once.
Season the scallops however you like, then thread bay scallops on soaked wooden skewers. Next, place the scallops on a non-stick broiler pan and broil about 6" away from the heating element, two minutes for bay scallops and three minutes for sea scallops.
Turn and broil an additional minute or two for bay or another two for sea scallops.
Pan Searing Scallops
This method is unsuitable for bay scallops since they are not large enough to get a good sear without overcooking. Save this application for sea scallops.
Preheat a large, heavy-bottomed skillet over high heat. Add a bit of olive oil and/or butter to the pan with a brush to ensure the fat coats the entire cooking surface.
Place the scallops in the pan, making sure they are not touching.
Leave them alone and let them cook for about 1 and ½ minutes. Then, turn carefully with tongs and cook another 1 and ½ minutes.
Remove from the heat. With this cooking time, the centers of the scallops will still be translucent. If you do not prefer them that way, sear them for two minutes per side.
Stir Frying Scallops
Use this method for smaller, sweeter bay scallops.
Heat a wok over high heat. Add a tablespoon of peanut oil.
Add the bay scallops along with a couple of teaspoons of soy sauce. Keep the scallops moving and cook until opaque, about two-three minutes.
Of course, you may stir fry with vegetables, too. In this case, rather than cooking the scallops first, removing them to cook the vegetables and then adding them back in at the end, cook the vegetables first.
Since the scallops take so little time to cook, you will have no problem keeping the vegetables warm.
The techniques above are all for cooking scallops when they are going to be the main event. What about when scallops are just one ingredient and are only added for an accent, as in a cioppino (fish stew) or a risotto?
Yes, it might take almost half an hour to make a risotto and even longer to assemble a good fish stew, but "quickly" is still the answer regarding how to cook scallops.
The simplest option is to add the raw scallops to your dish during the last three or four minutes of cooking and then serve. This is what I would recommend.
If you want a little color on your scallops, you can either stir fry or sear them for a minute or so and then add them into your hot dish after it has already come off the stove, allowing the heat of your stew or risotto to finish cooking the scallops.
Because scallops cook quickly and can overcook even more quickly, they do not reheat well. So either make just enough of a dish to serve everyone with no leftovers or expect to have some chewy scallops the next day.
I have seen some recipes for scallop casseroles that go against the "quick cooking" rule. Most of these casseroles contain a lot of fat in the form of heavy cream or even canned cream soup.
Adding so much creamy fat can help keep the scallops from tasting overcooked, so, as with most rules, fat-filled casseroles are the exception to the rule.
Scallops – How to Cook Scallops
- 1½ pounds bay scallops
- ½ pound sliced mushrooms
- 1 tablespoon butter
- 2 sprigs fresh thyme
- pinch kosher salt and freshly ground black pepper
- ¼ cup dry white wine
- 4 oz cheddar cheese mild, grated
- 4 tablespoons butter
- 4 tablespoons flour
- ½ teaspoon salt
- 2 cups whole milk
- 1 teaspoon Old Bay seasoning
- several strips of bacon
- Place the scallops in a buttered 1½ quart casserole dish.
- Sauté the mushrooms in 1 tablespoon of butter along with the fresh thyme, pinch of salt, and pepper.
- Add the white wine, and continue to cook until all the liquid is evaporated. Set aside to cool.
- Remove the thyme stems, and then spread them over the scallops.
- Heat 4 tablespoons of butter in a heavy-bottomed saucepan until melted and bubbly.
- Add the flour and salt and cook, constantly stirring, for two minutes.
- Add the milk all at once and stir until the mixture comes to a boil. Reduce the heat to medium-low and simmer until thickened.
- Add the Old Bay seasoning.
- Stir in the cheese a little at a time off the heat. Taste and adjust seasonings as necessary.
- Pour the sauce over the scallops and mushrooms.
- Cover with strips of bacon, and bake at 350°F for about thirty minutes.
- Let cool slightly before serving.
Some of My Favorite Scallop Recipes